Bvt. Major-General Robert C. Buchanan was born, 1811, in Baltimore, Md. He was graduated from the Military Academy, July 1, 1830, and promoted to the Infantry, in which arm of service he passed through every grade; was, for several years, Adjutant of his Regiment; because a Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers; and for over a third of a century was actively engaged in every duty of his profession. -- Cadet at the Military Academy, July 1, 1826, to July 1, 1830, when he was graduated as a Bvt. Second Lieut., 4th Infantry, July 1, 1830.  He was quickly promoted to Second Lieut., 4th Infantry.  Buchanan served in garrison at Baton Rouge, La., 1831-32, -- Ft. Crawford, Wis., 1832, -- in the “Black Hawk” War, 1832, being in command of the gunboats on the Wisconsin River during the Battle of Bad Axe River, Aug. 2, 1832, -- Ft. Armstrong, Ill., 1832, -- and Baton Rouge, La., 1832-33; on Recruiting service, 1833; in garrison at Baton Rouge, La., 1833-34, -- and New Orleans, La., 1834-35; as Adjutant 4th Infantry, at Regimental headquarters, Feb. 4, 1835, to Nov. 30, 1838; in the Florida War against the Seminole Indians, 1836.  He was promoted to First Lieut., 4th Infantry, on Mar. 16, 1836.

During 1837-38, he was detailed to Staff duty, in the Skirmishes of Camp Izard, Feb. 27, 28, 29, and March 5, 1836, -- Combat of Oloklikaha, Mar. 31, 1836, -- and Battle of Okee-cho-bee, Dec. 25, 1837; in the Cherokee Nation, 1838, while transferring the Indians to the West; on Commissary duty, at Louisville, Ky., 1838-39.  Buchanan was promoted to Captain, 4th Infantry, Nov. 1, 1838.

He served on frontier duty at Ft. Gibson, I. T., 1839-40, -- opening Military Road to Ft. Smith, Ark., 1840-41; in the Florida War against the Seminole Indians, 1841-42; on frontier duty at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., 1842-44, -- and Camp Salubrity, at Natchitoches, La., 1844-45; in Military Occupation of Texas, 1845-46; in the War with Mexico, 1846-48, being engaged in the Battle of Palo Alto, May 8, 1846, -- Battle of Resaca-de-la-Palma, May 9, 1845, -- Battle of Monterey, Sep. 21-23, 1846, -- in command of Battalion of Maryland Volunteers, Nov. 25, 1846, to May 30, 1847, -- Skirmishes of Paso de Ovejas, June 20, near Plan-del-Rio, June 22, and near El Pinal, July 5, 1847, -- Capture of San Antonio, Aug. 20, 1847, -- Battle of Churubusco, Aug. 20, 1847, -- Battle of Molino del Rey, Sep. 8, 1847, -- Battle of Chapultepec, Sep. 13, 1847, -- Assault and Capture of the City of Mexico, Sep. 13-14, 1847, and as Acting Inspector-General, Jan. 27 to Oct. 24, 1848; on frontier duty at Ft. Niagara, N. Y., 1849-50; on Recruiting service, 1850-52; on frontier duty at Benicia, Cal., 1852-53

Bvt. Major, May 9, 1846, for Gallant and Distinguished Services in the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca-de-la-Palma, Tex.  Lieut.-Colonel, Battalion of Maryland Volunteers, Nov. 25, 1846.  Bvt. Lieut.-Col, Sep. 8, 1847, for Gallant and Meritorious Conduct in the Battle of Molino del Rey, Mex.

Ft. Humboldt, Cal., 1853-56, -- Major, 4th Infantry, Feb. 3, 1855 -- in command of the District of Southern Oregon and Northern California, Mar. 7 to July 13, 1856, being engaged against the Rogue River Indians, Mar. 16 to July 10, 1856, when hostilities terminated by the removal of the Tribes; on recruiting service, 1857; as Superintendent of Western Recruiting Service at Newport, Ky., July 1, 1857, to July 1, 1859; on Court-martial duty, 1859-60; on detached service at Washington, D. C., 1860-61; and on frontier duty at Ft. Dalles, Or., 1861, -- and at Los Angeles, Cal., 1861.

Served during the Rebellion of the Seceding States, 1861-66; Lieut.-Colonel 4th Infantry, Sep. 9, 1861 -- in the defenses of Washington, D. C., Nov. 27, 1861, to Mar. 10, 1862; in the Virginia Peninsular Campaign (Army of the Potomac), Mar.-July, 1862, in command of 4th Infantry, to May 24, 1862, and subsequently of a brigade of Regular Infantry, being engaged in the Siege of Yorktown, Apr. 5-May 4, 1862, -- Battle of Gaines’ Mill, June 27, 1862, Bvt. Colonel, June 27, 1862, for Gallant and Meritorious Services at the Battle of Gaines’ Mill, Va -- Battle of Glendale, June 30, 1862, -- and Battle of Malvern Hill, July 1, 1862; in Northern Virginia Campaign, Aug.-Sep., 1862, being engaged in the Battle of Manassas, Aug. 30, 1862; in the Maryland Campaign (Army of the Potomac), Sep.-Nov., 1862, being engaged in the Battle of Antietam, Sep. 17, 1862, -- Skirmish at Potomac Run, Sep. 18, 1862, -- and march to Falmouth, Va., Oct.-Nov., 1862; Brig.-General, U. S. Volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862, to Mar. 4, 1863 -- in the Rappahannock Campaign Dec. 1862, to Jan. 27, 1863, being engaged in the Battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862; in command of Ft. Delaware, Mar. 16 to Apr. 14, 1863; as Asst. Provost Marshal General, Chief Mustering and Disbursing Officer, and Superintendent of Volunteer Recruiting Service, for New Jersey, Apr. 29 to Nov. 6, 1861; Colonel, 1st Infantry, Feb. 8, 1864 -- in command of 1st Infantry, at New Orleans, La., Dec. 6, 1864, to Aug. 27, 1865; on sick leave of absence, Aug. 26 to Dec. 1, 1865; and as member of Military Commission at Washington, D. C., Dec. 1, 1865, to Jan. 26, 1866,to investigate the complaints of Prussia against enlistment in Massachusetts in 1863.

Bvt. Brig.-General U. S. Army, Mar. 13, 1865, for Gallant and Meritorious Services at the Battle of Malvern Hill; Bvt. Major-General, U. S. Army, Mar. 13, 1865, for Gallant and Distinguished Services at the Battles of Manassas and Fredericksburg, Va.

Board for the Examination of Breech-loading Arms, Mar. 10 to Aug. 1, 1866; in waiting orders, Aug. 1, 1866, to Jan. 30, 1867. 

Served as Member of Commission on Claims of the State of Iowa, Jan. 30, 1867 to Jan., 1868; as Acting Commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, Jan. 2, 1868, to Jan. 8, 1869; and in command of District of Louisiana, Jan. 2, 1868, to Jan. 8, 1869, -- of Department of Louisiana, Jan. 8 to Mar. 31, 1869, -- and of his regiment, Apr., 1869, to Dec. 15, 1870, at Ft. Wayne, Mich., to June 16, 1870, and Ft. Porter, N. Y. to Dec. 15, 1870. Retired from Active Service, Dec. 31, 1870, on his own application after 30 years of continuous service.  Died, Nov. 29, 1878, at Washington, D. C., aged 67.

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